Non-invasive Brain Stimulation


In 1985, Anthony Barker and colleagues developed the first TMS device. Based on the physical principle of electromagnetic induction, TMS uses short (~500µs) and strong (>1Tesla) magnetic pulses to activate cortical neurons through the intact skin and skull. If applied at higher frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces changes in cortical excitability, which outlast the period of stimulation. This observation has led to its clinical application in various neurological and psychiatric conditions, e.g. treatment of depression or post-stroke rehabilitation. However, despite its clinical use the cellular and molecular mechanisms of rTMS-based therapies remain not well understood. We employ molecular, structural and functional techniques to assess the effects of rTMS on healthy and diseased brain tissue.

Selected Publications

Turi Z, Normann C, Domschke K, Vlachos A (2021)Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Psychiatry: Is There a Need for Electric Field Standardization? Front Hum Neurosci. 15:639640.

Shirinpour S, Hananeia N, Rosado J, Tran H, Galanis C, Vlachos A, Jedlicka P, Queisser G, Opitz (2021) Multi-scale modeling toolbox for single neuron and subcellular activity under Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation. Brain Stimul. S1935-861X(21)00234-5

Lenz M, Eichler A, Vlachos A (2021) Monitoring and Modulating Inflammation-Associated Alterations in Synaptic Plasticity: Role of Brain Stimulation and the Blood-Brain Interface. Biomolecules. 11:359.

Lenz M, Eichler A, Kruse P, Strehl A, Rodriguez-Rozada S, Goren I, Yogev N, Frank S, Waisman A, Deller T, Jung S, Maggio N, Vlachos A (2020) Interleukin 10 Restores Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Alterations in Synaptic Plasticity Probed by Repetitive Magnetic Stimulation. Front Immunol. 11:614509.

Lenz M, Galanis C, Müller-Dahlhaus F, Opitz A, Wierenga CJ, Ziemann U, Deller T, Funke K, Vlachos A° (2016) Repetitive magnetic stimulation induces plasticity of inhibitory synapses. Nat Commun. 7: 10020.

Lenz M, Platschek S, Priesemann V, Becker D, Willems LM, Ziemann U, Deller T, Müller-Dahlhaus F, Jedlicka P, Vlachos A° (2015) Repetitive magnetic stimulation induces plasticity of excitatory postsynapses on proximal dendrites of cultured mouse CA1 pyramidal neurons. Brain Struct Funct. 220: 3323-3337.

Müller-Dahlhaus F, Vlachos A° (2013) Unrevaling the cellular and molecular mechanisms of repetitive magnetic stimulation. Front Mol Neurosci. 6: 50.

Vlachos A*°, Müller-Dahlhaus F*°, Rosskopp J, Lenz M, Ziemann U, Deller T (2012) Repetitive magnetic stimulation induces functional and structural plasticity of excitatory postsynapses in mouse organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. J Neurosci. 32: 17514-17523.